AMP ACCOS 319 dijual oleh AMP Medizintechnik GMBH Statteggerstrasse 31 B 8045 Graz / Austria …

http://www.amp-diagnostics.com

AMP Medizintechnik GMBH

Statteggerstrasse 31 B

8045 Graz / Austria

Phone : + 43 316 69 80 69

Fax. + 43 316 69 80 69 12
.

Thank you very much for your interest in  products.
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AMP Diagnostics is a young, dynamically growing company specialized in supply of modern and reliable technology for use in medical laboratory diagnostics. Since its foundation in year 2000 the whole company is dedicated to providing products and services of best quality to clinical and private laboratories.

For historical reasons initially the business was mainly focused to clinical chemistry and haematology, but step by step the product portfolio is expanded with the target to offer adequate solutions for all aspects of routine diagnostics. At the same time we are always looking for new technologies and products in order to make specific and enhanced analysis accessible whenever and wherever needed.

As a manufacturer according to the standards of IVD directive 98/79/CE we supply reagents for use with a variety of popular clinical chemistry, haematology and coagulation analyser systems, as well as urine test strips and rapid tests to customers in already more than 60 countries. By using AMP products our customers can achieve considerable cost saving effects without any compromise in respect to the quality of their diagnostic performance and reliability.

That’s what AMP stands for – Advanced Medical Products providing considerable benefits to their users.

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Siapa penanggung jawab kualitas reagensia ???

Imprint
Responsible for content:
Company name: AMEDA Labordiagnostik GmbH
Management: Christine Herfort
Address: Krenngasse 12
8010 Graz / Austria
Phone: +43-316-69 80 69
Fax: +43-316-69 80 69 12
e-mail: office.graz@amp-med.com
Registration number: FN 339703p
Commercial court: LG f. ZRS Graz
VAT Number: ATU65386904

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KOntak Penjualan  Barang :

Do you have any question or want to receive further information? Maybe you also might have a comment or hint that would be important for us to know. We kindly invite you to send us an e-mail using the following link or to contact one of our offices listed below.

office.graz@amp-med.com

International Sales and Service:
AMEDA Labordiagnostik GmbH
Krenngasse 12
8010 Graz / Austria
Phone +43-316-69 80 69
Fax +43-316-69 80 69 12
Sales and Service in Poland:
AMP Polska sp. z o.o.
Gdynska 31
31-323 Kraków / Poland
Phone +48-12-294 02 78
Fax +48-12-294 02 81
Sales and Service in Romania:
AMP Diagnostics s.r.l.
Str. Fabricii No. 118-A (JAG Bldg.)
400632 Cluj-Napoca / Romania
Phone +40-264-42 59 34
Fax +40-264-42 76 27
Sales and Service in Serbia:
AMP Dijagnostika d.o.o.
Doza Derda 17/33
21000 Novi Sad / Serbia
Phone +381-21-503 510
Fax +381-21-503 513
Visit at MEDICA 2010
Duesseldorf – November 17th to 20th, 2010
MEDICA 09 - MEDICA 09 - MEDICA 09 - MEDICA 09 - MEDICA 09 -

Also this year we will participate as an exhibitor at MEDICA, which is held every year in the second half of November in Düsseldorf, Germany. With appr. 137.000 visitors from all parts of the world and 4.300 exhibitors from appr. 65 countries ( Status 2009 ) this fair is the world largest exhibition focused to medicine.

We cordially invite you to visit us at MEDICA 2010 from November 17th to 20th, 2010. You’ll find us in hall 3, booth no. D 52.

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Sample Preparation
AMP Galley Mixer

AMP Galley Mixer is designed for thorough and efficient, but never-the-less gentle mixing of whole blood samples by eccentric movement of the rollers. By its 2 tiomes 7 rolls it is offering a large capacity of up to 24 EDTA tubes ( 8 cm ).
Due to the belt drive operation is extremely silent. A special coating as well as simple removal of the rolls ensures easy cleaning of the unit.
These features as well as its smart design make the AMP Galley Mixer a valuable assistant in the haematology laboratory.

SPECIFICATIONS
Rollers: Quantity: 2 x 7
Length: 170 mm
Diameter: 27 mm
Rotating speed: 15 r.p.m.
Voltage 220 VAC
Frequency: 50 Hz
Max. power consumption: 2 W
Operating temperature: 15 to 35°C
Humidity: 10% to 90%, not condensing
Dimensions: 135 (H) x 77 (W) x 280 (D) mm
Weight: 2.5 kg

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Sample Collection
Sample Collection Devices
EDTA Capillaries
Part no.
Product
Unit
HC0080
EDTA Capillaries, 80 µL
1.000 pcs.
HC0090
EDTA Capillaries w. plunger, 25 µL
100 pcs.
HC0092
Capillaries, end-to-end, 20 µL
100 pcs.
EDTA TUBES
Part no.
Product
Unit
HC0010
EDTA Tubes, 1 mL
1.000 pcs.
HC0025
EDTA Tubes, 2.5 mL
1.500 pcs.
HC0030
EDTA Tubes, 3 mL
1.000 pcs.
OTHER CONSUMABLES
Part no.
Product
Unit
HC0200
Sample beakers, foldable
3.000 pcs.
HC0300
Sample beakers, glass
220 pcs.
HC2000
Paper pads
2.016 pcs.

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Haematology – Consumables 

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Correct sample collection, storage and preparation are essential conditions for accurate results. AMP Diagnostics offers a variety of sample collection devices with different volumes for use with all common analyser systems all of them pre-treated with EDTA as anti-coagulant. 

In combination with the AMP Galley Mixer these tools enable efficient and adequate collection and preparation of haematology samples.

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Haematology – Reagents 

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AMP Diagnostics offers a comprehensive range of high quality haematology reagents for use with several popular haematology analysers. Reagent formulations are optimized for use with the individual analyser model and are carefully evaluated concerning their performance prior to release for production. Highest quality standards applied in production ensure proper product performance for the whole guaranteed product life time. 

For verification of the analyser performance the control blood products AMP HemoTrol 8 and AMP Hemotrol 16 are available, which are assayed for a wide range of popular analyser systems.

Using AMP haematology reagents is the best choice for saving operating costs without taking any risk concerning analytical quality.

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Product Overview
AMP haematology reagents
DILUENTS
Part no.
Product
Volume
HR0120
AMP HemoDil
20 L
HR0220
AMP HemoDil LMG
20 L
HR0320
AMP HemoDil 3D
20 L
HR0420
AMP HemoDil CD
20 L
HR0520
AMP HemoDil MEK
20 L
HR0620
AMP HemoDil SM
20 L
HR0720
AMP HemoDil E
20 L
LYSING REAGENTS
Part no.
Product
Volume
HR1101
AMP HemoLyse
1 L
HR1201
AMP HemoLyse LMG
1 L
HR1301
AMP HemoLyse CT CN free
1 L
HR1391
AMP HemoLyse CT
1 L
HR1401
AMP HemoLyse 3D CN free
1 L
HR1405
AMP HemoLyse 3D CN free
5 L
HR1450
AMP HemoLyse MEK 5D
500 mL
HR1491
AMP HemoLyse 3D
1 L
HR1495
AMP HemoLyse 3D
5 L
HR1550
AMP HemoLyse MEK
500 mL
HR1750
AMP HemoLyse E3
500 mL
HR1850
AMP HemoLyse AL CN free
500 mL
HR1905
AMP HemoLyse SB
5 L
HR1950
AMP HemoLyse 3SM
5 L
HR3101
AMP HemoLyse 5
1 L
HR3250
AMP HemoFix
500 mL
HR4000
AMP HemoLyse M
6 x 15 mL
HR4001
AMP HemoLyse M CN free
6 x 15 mL
HR4010
AMP HemoLyse MD
10 x 10 mL
HR4105
AMP HemoLyse CD CN free
5 L
HR4210
AMP HemoLyse C3
10 L
HR4305
AMP HemoLyse C5
5 L
HR4450
AMP HemoLyse SX
500 mL
HR4550
AMP HemoLyse A
500 mL
CLEANING REAGENTS
Part no.
Product
Volume
HR2100
AMP HemoZyme CD
100 mL
HR2101
AMP HemoZyme
1 L
HR2110
AMP HemoZyme
10 L
HR2201
AMP HemoTerge MEK
1 L
HR2301
AMP HemoTerge CT
1 L
HR2305
AMP HemoTerge CT
5 L
HR2401
AMP HemoZyme MEK
1 L
HR2500
AMP HemoClair
500 mL
HR2501
AMP HemoClair CT
1 L
HR2551
AMP HemoClair MEK
1 L
SHEATH / RINSE / BLANKING SOLUTIONS
Part no.
Product
Volume
HR3520
AMP HemoSheath
20 L
HR5020
AMP HemoBlank
20 L
HR5120
AMP HemoBlank CD
20 L
HR5220
AMP HemoRinse
20 L

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Control Blood
AMP HemoTrol 8 & AMP HemoTrol 16
SPECIFICATIONS
AMP HemoTrol 8
AMP HemoTrol 16
Parameters:
RBC, WBC, PLT, HGB,
HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC
RBC, WBC, PLT, HGB, HCT,
MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, MPV,
LYM#, LYM%, MID#, MID%,
GRN#, GRN%
Available ranges:
Normal, Abnormal High, Abnormal Low
Storage:
2 – 8°C, close vial immediately after use
Stability:
3 weeks from date of opening the vial
Shelf life:
Maximum 100 days from date of production
ORDER INFORMATION
Part no.
Product
Composition
Volume
HR9082
AMP HemoTrol 8 – Kit S
1L 2N 1H
4 x 2 mL
HR9083
AMP HemoTrol 8 – Kit M
2L 4N 2H
8 x 2 mL
HR9084
AMP HemoTrol 8 – Kit L
3L 6N 3H
12 x 2 mL
HR9086
AMP HemoTrol 8 – Normal
6N
6 x 2 mL
HR9089
AMP HemoTrol 8 – Normal L
12N
12 x 2 mL
HR9162
AMP HemoTrol 16 – Kit S
1L 2N 1H
4 x 2 mL
HR9163
AMP HemoTrol 16 – Kit M
2L 4N 2H
8 x 2 mL
HR9164
AMP HemoTrol 16 – Kit L
3L 6N 3H
12 x 2 mL
HR9166
AMP HemoTrol 16 – Normal
6N
6 x 2 mL
HR9169
AMP HemoTrol 16 – Normal L
12N
12 x 2 mL
HR9502
AMP HemoTrol 16 – Kit S
1L 2N 1H
4 x 5 mL
HR9503
AMP HemoTrol 16 – Kit M
2L 4N 2H
8 x 5 mL
HR9504
AMP HemoTrol 16 – Kit L
3L 6N 3H
12 x 5 mL
HR9506
AMP HemoTrol 16 – Normal
6N
6 x 5 mL
HR9509
AMP HemoTrol 16 – Normal L
12N
12 x 5 mL

Nihon Kohden Celltac E ( MEK )

Hematology – Instruments

In partnership with Nihon Kohden Corp. we are providing our customers with a range of haematology analysersMEK 7222 - covering different demands from simple screening up to full 5 part differentiation of leukocytes. With more than 30 years of experience in development and production of haematology analysers Nihon Kohden Corp., based in Japan, has a solid base for designing reliable analyser systems according to customer requirements.

In practical use the following features of Nihon Kohden haematology analysers have proven as beneficial:

  • Minimal sample volume requirements
  • Simple operation concept
  • Low reagent consumption and cost per test
  • Minimized maintenance requirements

Specifications

Nihon Kohden Celltac E ( MEK 7222 )

REPORTED PARAMETERS
WBC, LYM#, MID#, NE#, EO#, BA#, LYM%, MID%, NE%, EO%, BA%,
RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PLT, RDW, PCT, MPV, PDW
PERFORMANCE
PARAMETER LINEAR RANGE PRECISION (CV%) AT
WBC 0 – 299 K/µL < 2.0 % 4.0 – 9.0 K/µL
RBC 0 – 14.9 M/µL < 1.5 % 5.0 K/µL
HGB 0 – 29.9 g/dL < 1.5 % 16 g/dL
MCV 20 – 199 fL < 1.0 % 70 – 120 fL
PLT 0 – 1490 K/µL < 4.0 % 3.0 K/µL
MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLE
Particle determination Impedance method detection
WBC 5 part differential Flow cytometry with laser
Hemoglobin Cyanmethemoglobin photometric detection
Hematocrit and Plateletcrit Histogram calculation
RBC and Platelet distribution width Histogram calculation
SAMPLE INPUT
Standard Open tube sampling
Optional Cap piercing module for closed tube sampling
SAMPLE VOLUME
Standard 55 µL ( CBC mode: 30 µL )
Pre-diluted mode ( CBC only ) 10 or 20 µl user selectable
SAMPLE THROUGHPUT
Open tube mode Appr. 50 samples / hour
Closed tube mode Appr. 45 samples / hour
OPERATING MODE
CBC or CBC + 5 part diff. User selectable for each sample resp. rack position
REAGENTS
Diluent AMP HemoDil MEK ( 20 L )
Lyse 1 AMP HemoLyse MEK ( 500 mL )
Lyse 2 AMP HemoLyse MEK 5D ( 500 mL )
Detergent 1 AMP HemoTerge MEK ( 1 L )
Detergent 2 AMP HemoClair MEK ( 1 L )
USER INTERFACE
Display backlit 5.5″ LCD
Operating elements Touch screen functions plus 5 function keys
Printout Built-in ( optional ) or external printer
Data manager ( option ) USB for PC
Extra port Barcode reader ( option )
Internal Data Memory 400 samples ( last 50 with histo- and scattergram)
POWER REQUIREMENTS
Voltage 220 – 240 VAC
Frequency 50 / 60 Hz
Max. power consumption 250 VA
DIMENSIONS
Height x Width x Depth 520 x 380 x 485 mm
Weight Appr. 38 kg

Data subject to change without notice, Celltac E ( MEK 7222 ) is a trade mark of Nihon Kohden Corp., Tokyo 161-8560, Japan

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Specifications

Nihon Kohden Celltac F ( MEK 8222 )

REPORTED PARAMETERS
WBC, LYM#, MID#, NE#, EO#, BA#, LYM%, MID%, NE%, EO%, BA%,
RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PLT, RDW, PCT, MPV, PDW
PERFORMANCE
PARAMETER LINEAR RANGE PRECISION (CV%) AT
WBC 0 – 300 K/µL < 2.0 % 4.0 – 9.0 K/µL
RBC 0 – 14.9 M/µL < 1.5 % 5.0 K/µL
HGB 0 – 20.9 g/dL < 1.5 % 16 g/dL
MCV 20 – 199 fL < 1.0 % 70 – 120 fL
PLT 0 – 1490 K/µL < 4.0 % 3.0 K/µL
MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLE
Particle determination: Impedance method detection
WBC 5 part differential: Flow cytometry with laser
Hemoglobin: Cyanmethemoglobin photometric detection
Hematocrit and Plateletcrit: Histogram calculation
RBC and Platelet distribution width: Histogram calculation
SAMPLE INPUT
Automatic mode: 50 position rack sampler with STAT position
Manual mode: Open tube sampling
SAMPLE VOLUME
Automatic mode: 55 µL ( CBC mode: 35 µL )
Manual mode: 55 µL ( CBC mode: 35 µL )
Pre-diluted mode ( CBC only ): 10 or 20 µl user selectable
SAMPLE THROUGHPUT
Automatic mode: 80 samples / hour
Manual mode: 50 samples / hour
OPERATING MODE
CBC or CBC + 5 part diff.: User selectable for each sample resp. rack position
REAGENTS
Diluent: AMP HemoDil MEK ( 20 L )
Lyse 1: AMP HemoLyse MEK ( 500 mL )
Lyse 2: AMP HemoLyse MEK 5D ( 500 mL )
Detergent 1: AMP HemoTerge MEK ( 1 L )
Detergent 2: AMP HemoClair MEK ( 1 L )
USER INTERFACE
Printout: external printer
Data manager: optional, USB for PC
Extra port: Barcode reader ( option )
Internal Data Memory: 400 samples ( last 60 with histo- and scattergram)
POWER REQUIREMENTS
Voltage: 220 – 240 VAC
Frequency: 50 / 60 Hz
Max. power consumption: 360 VA
DIMENSIONS
Height x Width x Depth: 550 x 613 x 583 mm
Weight: Appr. 55 kg

Data subject to change without notice, Celltac F ( MEK 8222 ) is a trade mark of Nihon Kohden Corp., Tokyo 161-8560, Japan

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Kualitas Hematology Anayzer ditentukan oleh ???

Kualitas Hematology  Anayzer  ditentukan oleh 3 siklus  :

1. Pra analitik fase, misal : Transportasi Sampel, Pengambilan Penerimaan dan Pengumpulan  Darah..  Darah jangan sampai hemolisa, jangan tertukar, jangan pakai  antikoagulan  yang salah… Juga Form Permohonan Pemeriksaan harus bagus

2. Analitik Fase, misal : Quality Control

3. Post Analitik Fase, misal : pelaporan, record keeping

tiga hal ini  menentukan akurasi hasil

Bagaimana memilih Hematology Analyzer yang baik ???

How to select the ideal hematology analyzer.

Looking for the best instrument to suit your needs? You’ll save time and money by consulting the treasury of advice offered here.

AFTER MONTHS of tedious preparation, our facility had won approval for a major capital improvement project to upgrade several expensive pieces of equipment in our laboratory. One of these upgrades involved purchasing a new hematology analyzer. As we began to pursue various options available on the market, we quickly learned that all hematology analyzers are not created equal.

This article is not intended to evaluate specific hematology analyzers or to recommend one piece of equipment over another. Rather, it is intended to provide laboratory managers with guidance on selecting an instrument that will best suit their needs.

* Assessment tool. While members of our lab management staff had always considered themselves qualified to make wise purchasing decisions, we felt that we needed a more efficient way to zero in on what individual vendors could offer our facility. We knew from the start that our search for an outstanding hematology analyzer would be a real challenge. Every vendor representative offered five-part differentials, closed vial sampling, and at least 18 parameters with histograms. They all asserted that their analyzer was the best on the market. Each claimed to have won out consistently over major competitors in side-by-side comparison tests.

To help judge the individual qualities of each instrument, we developed a comprehensive questionnaire, which we gave to any vendor vying for our business. Each salesperson was asked to complete the survey and return it to us when that manufacturer’s instrument was brought into the laboratory for a trial period.

This document served several purposes. First, it helped eliminate vendors who were clearly unable to meet our needs. Second, certain responses triggered more questions to ask during the evaluation process, Finally, the survey provided important documentation to which we could refer when making our final decision. Figure 1 combines most of the questions from our original questionnaire with the later ones we asked vendors when their products were brought to us for assessment.

For the most part, we learned that vendors appreciate having an opportunity to highlight on paper the special features of their products. A few were reluctant to answer questions related to service calls, the cost of replacement parts, the number of instruments currently in service, and similar matters. Nevertheless, no one refused to comply. Any salesperson who wanted our business acceded to our requests

* Ironing out terms. After weeks of studying all the instruments we fell knowledgeable enough to prepare bid specifications for vendors who remained in the running. Among the key issues that we closely scrutinized were data management, long-term expenditures, and extended warranties–typically expensive.

Another important consideration was to obtain guaranteed prices for reagents. To calculate the reasonable yearly usage costs associated with operating each instrument, we asked every vendor to include in their bids the costs for all reagents and controls. Taking this step enabled us to obtain guaranteed reagent pricing for the next five years.

* Wise shopping. More suggestions on how to be a wise shopper follow.

Independent analysis. When possible, ask vendors to leave their analyzers in the laboratory for a few days so that your staff can assess the instrument at their convenience in the absence of an eager rep. Vendors often offered us their instruments for at least three days.

Comparison chart. Create a chart that will reflect at a glance the comparative benefits of every instrument being considered. Dissimilarities in equipment often become more apparent when they are highlighted in black and white, particularly once you have begun to establish what you want–and don’t want–in a system.

Reserving first impressions. Don’t let yourself strongly favor one instrument too early in the decision process. You may be amazed by the offers that come your way once you request additional incentives, especially as it gets closer to finalizing a deal or designing your bid specs around a specific instrument.

Doing all the research is worth every minute it takes. Good luck!

Tommy Lee Camden, M.S., MT(AMT) is laboratory director for the City of Lubbock (Tex.) Health Department.

Figure 1

Probing questions for vendors and evaluators

I. General information

Name of instrument

Manufacturer

List price

Approximate bid price

Price of maintenance contract

What kinds of discounts are available on extended warranties?

Optional attachments (autoloader, data management system, T & B lymphocytes, bar code reader, ticket printer, other).

Length of time system has been in use (excluding manufacturer’s trials)

Approximate number of instruments used and distributed in U.S.

Approximate number of instruments used and distributed worldwide

Earlier model or antecedent apparatus

How long has your company been manufacturing hematology equipment? Has it ever been marketed by another company or under a different name?

II. Confirmation of specs

What is the minimum space needed for your analyzer and reagents?

What services are required to maintain the vacuum, drainage, and voltage?

Is it necessary to control electrical interference?

Is it necessary to control the atmospheric environment?

What are the analyzer’s effects on the environment, if any (for example, acoustical disturbance, vibration disturbance, electrical or mechanical safety)?

III. Training

Is your instruction book clearly written with adequate information for servicing and fault finding?

What special training is required for routine use of the system?

What special training is required for maintenance?

Does your company provide local training sessions or is training conducted elsewhere?

How many of our employees would be trained as primary operators according to the purchasing agreement?

Are training costs included in the purchase?

Are travel costs included in the training (for instance, gas mileage, airfare, food, lodging)?

IV. Instrumentation

General

What is the principle of each test performed?

Have detailed specifications of the instrument been provided?

Does the system have closed vial sampling capability?

Do the plastic shields covering the rubber stoppers on the specialized evacuated tubes pose a problem?

Describe input of samples into the system for testing.

Can program selection be modified at a user’s discretion?

Can a user select CBC with differential versus CBC without differential?

How many parameters will this instrument test?

Does this system provide a three- or five-part differential?

Is the differential interpretive or directly measured?

What is the throughput time?

What is the practical number of analyses per instrument per day?

How much time is required to start your analyzer up from a complete shutdown? Do you recommend turning the instrument off at night or over the weekend when it is not being used?

How much time is required to shut down the system each day?

Does the analyzer have a reagent warning and sensory system? Does it detect when reagents run low? Will it complete an analysis before shutting down if a low reagent is detected?

Does the system automatically clean the aspirator when used for sampling in the open vial or secondary mode? Is manual wiping required?

Do carryover or mode-to-mode programs exist within the data management system to evaluate instrument performance?

Are veterinary programs available for analyzing animal specimens?

Which parameters can be calibrated by in-house staff? Which parameters require calibration by technical field personnel? What is the recommended minimum calibration frequency for this instrument?

Are there any unique safety features on this analyzer?

Provide information on your validation methodology and the procedure we must use before putting this equipment on line and verifying linearity claims.

Autoloader

Is your system equipped for automated sampling? If so, is this capability standard or optional? If optional, what is the cost?

If the system does not have an autoloader, can the system be upgraded to include this feature?

When using the autoloader, how long can a user be away from the instrument once it is fully loaded (this does not mean tests per hour)?

How many specimens can be loaded onto the autoloader at one time?

Do Stat specimens create any difficulties in correctly identifying or interrupting the run in progress when using the autoloader?

Bar coding

Is your system equipped with a bar code reader for specimen identification? If so, which bar codes can be used for this system? Is bar coding a standard feature?

Does the position of the bar code pose any problems on the tube? Once bar coded, does the tube have to be placed in the cassette holder in any particular position so that the bar code reader can detect and correctly identify the specimen?

Are quality control materials bar coded for easy loading of assay values and automatic assignment to correct QC file?

V. Maintenance

Describe any alarm systems in place for instrument failure or disturbance.

What is the life expectancy of the tubing, laser, circuit boards, pumps, or other major components?

What is the average cost for replacing expensive items such as the circuit boards and laser?

Approximately how many service calls have been made per year for the last three years?

What is the average mean time between service calls for the last three years?

What is the name and address of the nearest authorized service facility to this laboratory?

What is your total parts inventory for your system?

How many technicians are employed at your nearest facility?

How many field service technicians are available for on-site service?

What is the hourly rate for shop labor?

What is the hourly labor rate for field service labor?

What is the average response time that can be expected for a service call to this laboratory?

What is the average delivery time for parts not found in inventory?

About how long will replacement parts be available for your system?

Explain the standard warranty coverage of your instrument.

What is your procedure for handling defective parts or poor quality of materials or workmanship?

For how many years has this particular system been in production?

If your service facility is located outside this city, explain your process for performing warranty work, service not covered under the warranty, and service work performed once the warranty has expired.

Who is responsible for transportation expenses should the unit require service out of town during the warranty period?

What is your method for calculating the transportation expense of out-of-town service?

State (in years) the useful life and expected downtime of your instrument.

What parts of your system are considered consumables and therefore not covered under your service contract? What is the annual usage of these consumables?

VI. Specimens

What type of anticoagulant does your system require?

Does the system have microsampling capability? If so, what is the dilution factor?

Can prediluted specimens of capillary blood be used? Will the system autocalculate for the dilution factor?

Do calibrators and control products come in cap-piercing vials?

What mechanism is available on the instrument to reject unsuitable specimens (hemolyzed, clotted, low volume)?

What is the specimen volume required for closed tube, open tube, and capillary specimen analysis?

VII. Reagents

List all required reagents, their functions, and the volumes used in single analysis as well as lapped analyses.

What is the unopened shelf life of each reagent?

What is the opened shelf life of each reagent?

Are reagents only supplied by your company, or are suitable reagents available from other commercial suppliers as well? If so, will using them jeopardize the warranty or the service contract?

What volume of reagents is used for priming the instrument and per run of 2, 25, and 100 specimens?

What reference materials/calibrators are required? What do they cost?

Are other suitable reference materials available for this instrument?

Are reagents prepackaged as a unit or purchased separately?

What is the monthly cost of calibrators and controls?

Do the routine quality control materials also control the quality differential? Must additional materials or procedures be purchased or followed?

Do any reagents require neutralization before discarding? If so, explain the procedure.

Are special calibrators needed and available for calibrations as opposed to day-to-day controls?

Provide detailed costs of all reagents needed to operate your system based on blood specimens per year for our institution.

VIII. Data management

General

Does your analyzer have a dedicated PC or data management system? Can the data management system be upgraded, and if so, how?

How large is the DMS? Detail its specifications.

Is the system capable of multitasking duties? Can you edit data while the instrument is analyzing specimens?

Does the system have standard bidirectional computer linkup capability?

Can the internal DMS be upgraded using future software revisions?

If the system can be upgraded with an autoloader, does the software program require a change? If so, how much more is the new software?

Will the system accept both alpha and numeric data entry?

How many patients with full reportable results can be stored internally in the system? When the system is full, can the results be downloaded to floppy disks for external storage?

How much optional demographic information can be assigned to a patient? Is this possible at both pre- and post-analysis?

Can the patient report be modified to the operator’s discretion? Detail the various options available for creating a typical report.

How many scatterplots and histograms can the system store?

Can the system generate a pre- and post-load list?

Are password security options available to operate the analyzer? Can they be easily printed for QA records?

If the standard system has an optional DMS attached, who is responsible for its warranty?

Does the system have flags for RBC size and color as well as WBC flags for left shift, atypical lymphs, and blasts?

Is a help screen available throughout the DMS system?

Does the DMS use an easy-to-follow window format?

Quality control

Does the system have Levey-Jennings-type QC programs?

How many points or days of data are possible for each control level?

Does the system have Westgard rules within its QC program?

Does your company have an interlaboratory QA program? Can the data be transmitted via modem to your facility for analysis?

Does the system have an “X-BAR” or moving averages program? If so, how many and which parameters does the system track?

Does the moving average program selectively remove data from the calculation with Bull’s formula?

Does the system have a reproducibility program?

How many control files are available? How many lines of data can be stored in each control file?

How many lines of data can be deleted or rejected from the QC programs? Is the information totally erased or highlighted as unacceptable? Are security measures in place to prevent QC data from being erased?

When assaying controls, how are values outside the assigned ranges brought to the operator’s attention? Can the system be shut down automatically if QC values are out of range?

IX. Laboratory management staff response

How friendly is the DMS to operate?

What problems emerged during the in-house evaluation?

Did the sales rep answer all our questions without hesitation and rectify any problems that occurred as we evaluated the system?

Could our lab staff perform the required maintenance and minor repairs? How much time would it take?

How easy is the system to operate compared with the other instruments under consideration?

How great is the noise level compared with that of the other instruments under consideration?

Is the flagging criteria easy to interpret?

Is the instrument easy to calibrate? Does it hold calibration values on target?

How easy is it to set up the control libraries?

During on-site evaluation, did we have to call the troubleshooting hotline? Was it helpful?

Is there good correlation between the instrument under evaluation and the one we use now?

How well does the system separate white cell subpopulations in the cytogram?

Was significant carryover noted between specimens?

How quickly can data be retrieved from previous runs?

What distinct advantages does this system have over the other analyzers we are considering?

How does this instrument rank in relation to the other instruments under evaluation?

======================================================

FLAGGING SYSTEMS FOR HEMATOLOGY ANALYZERS

Introduction
Clinical laboratories routinely use hematology instruments to perform so-called
complete blood counts (CBCs) on patient specimens. About 25 different instruments are
capable of performing blood counts that include differential leukocyte counts.(1) While
the measurements performed by these instruments in general are quite
accurate and precise, the measurements may vary from one brand of
instrument to another.
Flagging is defined as “signaling or communicating a message with, or as if with,
a flag.” In the hematology laboratory a flag is the signal to the operator that the analyzed
may have a significant abnormality. Most of these automated instruments are
programmed in a variety of ways to “flag” or otherwise identify specimens that may
a report is released from the laboratory.(5-8)
among the various instruments as to which abnormalities are flagged as well as the
efficiency of the flagging procedures.
are quantitative flags, which are originally set by the manufacturer but which can be
redefined by the user if desired. But it must be recognized that reference ranges may vary
(9) Therefore, quantitative flagging must take
not to
for both qualitative and quantitative flags to its flagging menu.
To be useful, flagging should have a low false positive rate (e.g., < 10%) coupled
potentially abnormal blood specimens. However, it is recognized that there will be
compromises between false negative and false positive flagging rates that are
which to strive, although not presently attainable.
The ultimate goal is to reduce the number of clinically non-contributory blood
third to one-half of these tedious reviews could be safely eliminated without adversely
affecting patient care. Of course, in hematology and/or oncology services, it is most
likely that most cases will have more frequent blood film reviews. As a bonus, the
shortened. But there may be a decrease in hospital revenues, which may pose a significant
financial problem. Another potential problem may be the gradual loss of morphologic
become less proficient in this important function.
In our laboratories we began the development of a flagging system by interfacing
(5) With the prototype
system in place, it was found that about one-third of the cases had no significant blood
film review abnormalities and could be reported immediately. These instruments were
later replaced by new analyzers that included acceptable flagging systems.(11) With the
acceptance by the clinical staff over several years, the laboratories were able to reduce the
rate of blood film reviews from 82% to less than 40%.
State of the Art for Flagging
Performance of the most popular hematology instrumentation reveals reasonably
good performance for quantitative abnormalities.(12-16) With time and experience, a
laboratory may safely broaden the flagging limits beyond the narrow limits of the
quantitative reference ranges. So, for example, as confidence builds that the instrument
correctly counts neutrophils in the mildly and moderately abnormal ranges, the film
review may be omitted if this is the only quantitative flag. Also, if a patient’s blood film
has been recently examined and the abnormality is still present, there is no need to repeat
the examination.(8) As an example, patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass
procedures frequently are thrombocytopenic and anemic in the immediate post-operative
period. There is no need to re-examine blood films on consecutive specimens if the
quantitative results are mildly abnormal and no marked changes have occurred.
Since the state-of-the-art hematology analyzers are quite acceptable insofar as
quantitative measurements are concerned, there is little to be gained by a supplementary
blood film examination. Thus a great deal of skilled technical effort can be devoted to
other more useful endeavors. The following discussion will therefore concentrate on
clinically meaningful qualitative abnormalities. In this case gender, age or even racial
differences are of lesser importance. As a result the user has much less control over the
qualitative flagging processes, which are proprietary for the most part.
The flagging performances for qualitative abnormalities have had false positive
rates of up to 30% or more and false negative rates of up to 15%. It is difficult to compare
the various instruments since many of the studies have been done with only one
instrument. These data must be interpreted with caution since many times the case mix of
the study specimens is not well defined or is variable from one study to the other;
therefore, the rates of flagging misses are subject to variation due to the makeup of the
study population rather than variation in instrument performance. Only a few studies have
been published that compare several instruments using the same set of patient
specimens.(17,18
1) Flagging for Qualitative Red Cell Abnormalities
Traditionally, red cell abnormalities have been categorized by the number, size
and variability of the red cells, i.e., the red cell indices. Thus, microcytic, normocytic and
macrocytic anemias as well as polycythemias have been quite adequately identified and
categorized by hematology laboratories for many years. More recently, the determination
of red cell anisocytosis has been measured by the so-called red cell distribution width
(RDW) with some success, and additional categories of anemia have been developed.(19)
In the recent past, there have been efforts to screen for hemoglobinopathies (in addition to
thalassemias) that have shown promise of being useful in the discovery of certain
hemoglobinopathies. However, this capability has not yet been incorporated into all
Suggested flags for qualitative erythrocyte abnormalities include:
Nucleated red cells in severe anemia, metastatic
(22)
Poorly lysed red cells for hemoglobinopathies
·
· (19)
While the quantitation of platelets has improved considerably in the recent past,
Two additional platelet parameters have been proposed. The first, the mean platelet
younger platelets are thought to be larger than normal. Thus an increase in the MPV has
(23)
often they are detected by analysis of the platelet histogram.
atelet distribution width (PDW), is an
of this measurement is still under investigation.
Studies have confirmed the accuracy and reliability of the total leukocyte count
(12-16)
monocyte differentiation has been problematic; this is probably of relatively minor
(24)
and variant [atypical] lymphocytosis), the instrument correlations with reference
considered to be a shortcoming of the instruments while others take the stance that there
especially surgeons and pediatricians, continue to rely on documenting these leukocyte
bacterial).
· (25,26)
Variant lymphocytes for viral infections or lymphoproliferative disorders
· (22)
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) working group with the
differential leukocyte counting standard.
4) Unexpected Changes in Hematologic Parameters
Finally, if there is a significant change (delta check) in any of the patient’s
quantitative or qualitative results even if they have occurred within the flagging limits, a
blood film should be reviewed. For example, if the platelet count drops significantly
within a relatively short period of time (hours or days), there is reason to investigate.
Platelet clumping may account for the fall, but early disseminated intravascular
coagulation might present in a similar way. Delta checking systems are not yet well
developed nor are they yet widely available(29) but should be incorporated into the
flagging procedures in the future.
Quality Assurance Procedures for Flagging
Since the flagging procedure by definition results in the examination of the blood
film either to confirm or to rule out the presence of an abnormality, there is, in fact, an
ongoing quality assurance procedure in place. A comprehensive discussion of quality
assurance strategies for automated hematology analyzers has recently been published.(30)
However, in order to ensure that no significant number of abnormalities are being missed,
a representative sampling of non-flagged specimens should also be examined and records
should be kept of such actions. This will also help to maintain the morphologic expertise
of the laboratory staff. A recent chapter on blood film review outlines a practical yet
comprehensive method for this procedure.(31)
Future Directions
Presently marketed hematology analyzers are capable of utilizing age and/or
gender-specific flagging. While sophisticated laboratory information systems might
include such a feature, as yet few such systems are in place. With continuing advances in
the processing of data within the laboratory, a number of interfacing systems are being
developed that may be able to help with the appropriate processing of the volume of data
generated by the automated hematology analyzers. Some systems may be able to
automatically flag specimens requiring additional study including, as appropriate, a blood
film review by senior technologists and/or the medical director of the hematology
laboratory. Some systems include the on-line evaluation of the data for validity.(32)
We have the opportunity to take advantage of the capabilities of automated
hematology analyzers. If we can properly validate the hematology data and can flag
specimens that need additional evaluation, patient care will be improved (by significantly
shortening turnaround times), the efficiency of the laboratory staff will be enhanced (by
eliminating unneeded or non-contributory blood film studies including differential
counts) and finally the costs for laboratory studies will decrease. In these days of downsizing
and cost cutting, such innovations have become more difficult to investigate,
develop and implement. Still, we should continue to strive to improve our laboratory
services as well as to decrease costs.
In order to accomplish these worthwhile goals, laboratory and clinical
professionals should continue to learn about the capabilities of the various analyzers and
encourage harmonization of the various flagging systems, including the elimination of
International Council for Standards in Haematology is to develop standards in

Aneka Chemistry Analyzer Mindray dan reagen nya

BS-120 

Clinical Chemistry Analyzer
A bench-top, discrete and random access clinical chemistry analyzer offering 100 tests per hour
Typical Users: 

Small laboratories (used as a main instrument); medium-sized laboratories (used as a back-up)

Features:

. 100 tests per hour, up to 300 tests per hour with ISE (K, Na, Cl, Li)
. 24-hour refrigeration for reagent tray
. Flexible reagent/sample tray
. Independent mixing stirrer
. Robust and user-friendly operation software
. Best cost-efficiency
. Pre-dilution and post-dilution for sample
. Bi-directional LIS interface
=============================================================================================================
BS-200 

Clinical Chemistry Analyzer
A bench-top, discrete and random access clinical chemistry analyzer offering 200 tests per hour
Typical Users: 

Small laboratories (used as a main instrument); medium-sized and large laboratories (used as a back-up)

Features:

• 200 tests per hour, up to 330 tests per hour with ISE (K, Na, Cl)
• 24-hour refrigeration for reagent tray
• Built-in bar code scanner
• Independent mixing stirrer
• Robust and user-friendly operation software
• Multi-language version available
• Pre-dilution and post-dilution for sample
• Bi-directional LIS interface
===================================================================================================
BS-300 

Clinical Chemistry Analyzer
A floor-standing, discrete and random access clinical chemistry analyzer offering 300 tests per hour
Typical Users: 

Medium-sized laboratories (used as a main instrument); large laboratories (used as a back-up)

Features:

. 300 tests per hour, up to 480 tests per hour with ISE (K, Na, Cl, Li)
. 24-hour refrigeration for reagent tray
. Optional bar code scanner
. Independent mixing stirrer
. Disposable cuvettes with auto-loading system
. Multi-language version is available
. Pre-dilution and post-dilution for sample
. Bi-directional LIS interface
==================================================================================================
BS-380 

Clinical Chemistry Analyzer
A floor-standing, discrete and random access clinical chemistry analyzer offering a constant 300 tests per hour
Typical Users: 

Medium-sized laboratories (used as a main instrument); large laboratories (used as a back-up)

Features:

. Constant 300 tests per hour, up to 450 tests per hour with ISE (K, Na, Cl)
. 24-hour refrigeration for reagent tray
. Reusable cuvettes with auto-washing station
. Independent mixing stirrer (two-in-one)
. Automatic probe cleaning, liquid level detection and crash protection
(vertical & horizontal)
. Reversed grating system with 12 wavelengths
. Built-in bar code scanner
. Pre-dilution and post-dilution for sample
. Bi-directional LIS interface
==================================================================================================
BS-400 

Clinical Chemistry Analyzer
A floor-standing, discrete and random access clinical chemistry analyzer offering a constant 400 tests per hour
Typical Users: 

Medium-sized laboratories (used as a main instrument); large laboratories (used as a back-up)

Features:

.  Constant 400 tests per hour, up to 640 tests per hour with ISE (K, Na, Cl, Li)
.  24-hour refrigeration for reagent tray
.  Reusable cuvettes with auto-washing station
.  Two independent mixing stirrers
.  Clot detection and crash protection (vertical & horizontal)
.  Reversed grating system with 12 wavelengths
.  Built-in bar code scanner
.  Pre-dilution and post-dilution for sample
.  Bi-directional LIS interface
====================================================================================
Chemistry Reagents 

Our brand new system-pack of biochemistry reagents for 39 parameters have been specially developed to work with Mindray’s BS series automatic chemistry analyzers to make a complete system, offering high reliability and accuracy. The bulk package is also cost-effective and will satisfy the requirements of all chemistry analyzers.
High-Quality & Cost-Effective Chemistry Solutions 

. Perfect Matching System – running our system-pack reagents on our effective chemistry analyzers with
parameter optimization will give the most accurate results and easy accessibility
. Comprehensive test items – including enzymes, substrates, specific proteins and electrolytes to satisfy
clinical needs
. Liquid stable technology – all reagents are available as stable liquids, ready to use, which saves time, labor
and reagent waste
. Excellent performance – wide linear range, good reproducibility and stability, strong anti-interference to
ensure reliable test results
. Cost saving – accommodating packaging, minimal dead volume and suitable R1/R2 volume ratio helps to
eliminate unnecessary expense
. Bulky package available – the best cost-effective and competitive package can serve your
needs for all chemistry analyzers
===================================================================
.
para  pembaca ……………………

Dahulu, glukosa diperiksa dengan memanfaatkan sifat mereduksi glukosa yang non spesifik

dalam suatu reaksi dengan bahan indikator yang memperoleh atau berubah warna jika tereduksi.

Karena banyak jenis pereduksi lain dalam darah yang dapat bereaksi positif, maka dengan metode ini kadar

glukosa bisa lebih tinggi 5-15 mg/dl.

Sekarang, pengukuran glukosa menggunakan metode enzimatik yang lebih spesifik untuk glukosa. Metode ini

umumnya menggunakan enzim glukosa oksidase atau heksokinase, yang bekerja hanya pada glukosa dan tidak

pada gula lain dan bahan pereduksi lain. Perubahan enzimatik glukosa menjadi produk dihitung berdasarkan

reaksi perubahan warna (kolorimetri) sebagai reaksi terakhir dari serangkaian reaksi kimia, atau berdasarkan

konsumsi oksigen pada suatu elektroda pendeteksi oksigen. Chemistry analyzer (mesin penganalisis kimiawi) modern dapat menghitung konsentrasi glukosa hanya dalm beberapa menit.

Di luar laboratorium, sekarang banyak tersedia berbagai merek monitor glukosa pribadi yang dapat digunakan

ntuk mengukur kadar glukosa darah dari tusukan di ujung jari. Alat ini cukup bermanfaat untuk mengetahui

kadar glukosa darah dan untuk menyesuaikan terapi. Namun, alat ini memiliki kekurangan dimana hasil pengukuran

terpengaruh oleh kadar hematokrit dan juga protein serum; kadar hematokrit yang rendah dapat meningkatkan secara

semu kadar glukosa darah, dan sebaliknya (efek serupa juga berlaku untuk protein serum yang rendah atau tinggi).

Oleh sebab itu, penderita harus secara berkala membandingkan hasil pengukuran alatnya dengan pengukuran glukosa

laboratorium klinik (baku emas) untuk memperkirakan kemungkinan interferensi fisiologik serta fluktuasi fungsi alat mereka.

“Mindray BC-3000 Plus” beserta reagen, control, calibrator

BC-3000Plus 

Auto Hematology Analyzer
BC-3000Plus is an analyzer for the mainstream laboratory that prioritizes quality results. 

Equipped with a large, color LCD Display, built-in thermal printer and huge storage capacity,

our user-friendly hematology analyzer brings the convenience and accuracy of the reference

laboratory right into your practice, offering maximum value with low running costs.

. Three-part differentiation of WBC, 19 parameters +3 histograms
. Two counting modes: whole blood and prediluted
. Throughput: 60 samples per hour
. Micro sampling of 13 ul
. Automatic diluting, lyzing, mixing, rinsing and unclogging
. Storage for up to 35,000 sample results (including histograms)
. Large Color LCD Display
.
.
=================================================================================
.
Hematology Reagents 

These dedicated hematology reagents are important components of Mindray’s hematology system, together with Mindray’s hematology instruments. 

. Our professional reagent R&D team and facility create high quality products
. Original reagents and quality control systems ensure reliable and traceable results
. Patented chemical dye reagents designed for eosinophil differentiation
. Longer shelf life: up to 24months 

nah… udah jelas  kan ???

Hematology Controls and Calibrators
Quality, Ready-to-run and Convenient 

Mindray’s hematology controls and calibrators are the original standards with which to evaluate the precision and accuracy of hematology analyzers. Backed up by world-class development and manufacturing, these hematology controls and calibrators offer the assurance of highest quality from your lab results. All of these hematology controls and calibrators feature long-term stability and ready-to-run tubes, and are thus convenient to use.  

BC-3D Hematology Control

. Tri-level controls designed specifically for BC-1800, BC-2300, BC-2100, BC-2600, BC-2800, BC-3000Plus,
BC-3200 and BC-2800Vet analyzers
. With three-part WBC differential
. 105-day closed vial stability; 3 QC months
. 14-day open vial stability
. Packaged in 3mL pierceable screw cap tubes 

Package Catalogue Number
1 Low, 1 Normal, 1 High BC3D01
2 Low, 2 Normal, 2 High BC3D02
6 Low BC3D6L
6 Normal BC3D6N
6 High BC3D6H

BC-5D Hematology Control

. Tri-level controls designed specifically for BC-5100, BC-5300, BC-5180, BC-5380, BC-5200, BC-5500 and   BC-5300Vet analyzers
. with five-part WBC differential
. 70-day closed vial stability; 2 QC months
. 14-day open vial stability
. Packaged in 3mL pierceable screw cap tubes 

Package Catalogue Number
2 Low, 2 Normal, 2 High BC5D02
6 Low BC5D06L
6 Normal BC5D06N
6 High BC5D06H
12 Low BC5D12L
12 Normal BC5D12N
12 High BC5D12H

SC-CAL Plus Hematology Calibrator

. Calibrators designed to use on all BC- analyzers
. Assay values for WBC, RBC, PLT, HGB and MCV
. 45-day closed vial stability
. 7-day open vial stability
. Packaged in 3mL pierceable screw cap tubes 

Package Catalogue Number
2 tubes SCCAL2

Laboratorium klinik atau laboratorium medis ialah laboratorium di mana berbagai macam tes dilakukan pada spesimen biologis untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang kesehatan pasien.

Laboratorium klinik atau laboratorium medis ialah laboratorium di mana berbagai macam tes dilakukan pada spesimen biologis untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang kesehatan pasien.

Pemeriksaan darah lengkap umumnya telah menggunakan mesin penghitung otomatis (hematology analyzer). Pemeriksaan dengan mesin penghitung otomatis dapat memberikan hasil yang cepat. Namun, analyzer memiliki keterbatasan ketika terdapat sel yang abnormal, misalnya banyak dijumpainya sel-sel yang belum matang pada leukemia, infeksi bakterial, sepsis, dsb. Atau, ketika jumlah sel sangat tinggi sehingga analyzer tidak mampu menghitungnya. Pada keadaan seperti ini, pemeriksaan manual sangat diperlukan.

 

Keuntungan dari penghitungan manual adalah bahwa mesin penghitung otomatis tidak dapat diandalkan dalam menghitung sel abnormal. Dalam hal ini diperlukan pemeriksaan manual terhadap apusan darah. Pemeriksaan secara mikroskopik akan memberikan informasi mengenai lekosit-lekosit yang abnormal dan variasi bentuk eritrosit. Pemeriksaan manual juga dapat memberikan informasi mengenai adanya jenis sel lain yang biasanya tidak dijumpai dalam darah tepi, misalnya sel plasma. Selain itu, adanya trombosit yang menggerombol (clumps) yang menyebabkan rendahnya jumlah trombosit pada pemeriksaan otomatis dapat dikonfirmasi dengan pemeriksaan apusan darah.

Dalam kasus jumlah sel yang sangat tinggi dimana analyzer tidak mampu menghitungnya, maka pemeriksaan manual menjadi pilihan untuk dilakukan. Pada pemeriksaan secara manual ini darah diencerkan dulu dengan tingkat pengenceran yang lebih tinggi.

Analis harus  mengurangi risiko kesalahan diagnosis dan tindakan medis pada pasien.

Salah satu cara efektif mendiagnosis pasien adalah dengan memeriksa sampel cairan berupa darah atau air seni pasien di laboratorium.

Pemeriksaan sampel cairan itu akan menentukan diagnosis dokter. Setelah tes sampel di laboratorium diketahui hasilnya, dokter akan segera melakukan tindakan medis guna menyembuhkan pasien. Umumnya, metode menganalisis sampel di laboratorium menggunakan cara semi-otomatis.

Artinya, sampel diuji secara manual oleh tenaga analis laboratorium dengan sedikit bantuan dari mesin analisis.

Kebanyakan laboratorium rumah sakit di Tanah Air menggunakan metode seperti demikian. Namun, metode itu mengandung kelemahan karena sering terjadi kesalahan dalam proses analisis.

Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat (RSUP) Fatmawati, Jakarta, memprediksikan sekitar 60 persen kesalahan menganalisis sampel terjadi di laboratorium semi-otomatis.

Kesalahan analisis itu disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor, salah satunya karena kelalaian manusia. Apabila tenaga laboratorium tidak cermat menganalisis sampel, niscaya proses analisis laboratoriumnya pun akan keliru.

Ujung-ujungnya dokter bisa jadi salah mendiagnosis atau melakukan tindakan medis yang salah terhadap pasien.

Terdapat tiga mesin analisis, yakni mesin pemeriksaan kimia klinik (chemical analyzer), hematologi, dan immunologi.

Diagnosis yang akurat dari hasil pemeriksaan laboratorium memungkinkan tim medis memberikan penanganan yang tepat kepada pasien,”

Kredibilitas laboratorium medis adalah yang terpenting untuk kesehatan dan kemaman pasien yang mempercayakan layanan tes yang disediakan oleh laboratorium itu. Standar internasional yang sekarang digunakan untuk akreditasi laboratorium medis adalah ISO 15189 – Laboratorium medis – yang diperlukan khususnya kualitas dan kompetensi.

Labratorium ini sering dibagi atas sejumlah bagian:

===
Berikut ini adalah tingkat-tingkatan staf laboratorium klinik dari yang tertinggi ke yang terendah: patolog, asisten patolog, manajer laboratorium, penasihat bagian, teknolog utama (teknolog pemimpin), sitoteknolog, teknolog medis, histoteknolog, teknisi laboratorium medis, asisten laboratorium medis (pembantu lab), ahli flebotomi, transkripsionis, dan prosesor spesimen (sekretaris).
===

Di sejumlah negara, ada 2 jenis laboratorium yang memproses sebagian besar spesimen medis. Laboratorium rumah sakit ada di rumah sakit, dan melakukan tes pada pasien. Laboratorium swasta (atau masyarakat) menerima sampel untuk dianalisis dari dokter umum, perusahaan asuransi, dan klinikus kesehatan lainnya, yang juga dapat disebut sebagai laboratorium rujukan di mana tes yang tidak umum dan tak jelas dilakukan.

Untuk uji yang amat khusus, sampelnya bisa masuk ke laboratorium MIPA maupun riset.

Banyak sampel yang dikirim antara laboratorium yang berbeda untuk tes-tes yang tidak umum, yang lebih efektif ongkosnya jika sebuah laboratorium khusus mengkhususkan diri pada tes yang jarang, menerima spesimen (dan uang) dari laboratorium lain, bila mengirimkan uji tak dapat dilakukan.

===

Pemrosesan sampel biasanya bermula dengan seperangkat sampel dan nota permintaan.

Khasnya satu set tabung vakutainer yang mengandung darah, atau spesimen lain manapun akan tiba di laboratorium di tas plastik kecil bersama dengan nota itu.

Pada nota dan spesimen itu dicantumkan nomor laboratorium. Biasanya semua spesimen menerima nomor yang sama, sering dengan stiker yang dapat ditempel di tabung dan nota. Label ini memiliki barkod yang dapat dipindai oleh analisator otomatis dan permintaan tes yang dinaikmuatkan dari SIL. Entri permintaan di sistem manajemen laboratorium melibatkan pengetikan atau pemindaian (di mana barkod digunakan) di nomor laboratorium, dan memasuki identifikasi pasien, begitupun tiap tes yang diperlukan. Memerlukan mesin, komputer, dan staf laboratorium untuk mengetahui tes mana yang dinantikan, dan juga memberikan tempat (seperti bagian RS, dokter atau pelanggan lain) agar hasilnya dapat diberikan.

Untuk sampel biokimiawi, darah biasanya disentrifugasi dan serum dipisahkan. Jika perlu diproses oleh lebih dari 1 mesin, serum dapat dibagi-bagi ke botol-botol yang berbeda.

Banyak spesimen yang berakhir pada satu analisator otomatis yang njelimet atau lebih, yang memproses fraksi dari sampel dan mengembalikan 1 “hasil” atau lebih.

Ikuti

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